ENSO Monitor (NINO3)

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomena that has a worldwide impact on climate.

ENSO events are in part characterized by warm temperature anomalies in the central to eastern equatorial Pacific. The Mar 2003 global sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) are

NINO3 is an index that measures the strength of an ENSO event: it is the SSTA averaged over [5S,5N] and [150W,90W], i.e. the eastern equatorial Pacific.

The largest ENSO event of the century was in 1982-1983; there is also an event in 1986-1987. Starting in late 1991 is an unusually long-lived event.

Global SSTA are available from Nov1981 to the present. Pacific SSTA are available from Jan 1970 to the present .

Our forecast of ENSO is updated monthly. More ENSO information is available from TOGA/PMEL.