Observations for


a) 8-day Nighttime Land Surface Temperature (LST) for the selected region during the most recent 12 month period.

b) Same as (a) for the current calendar year (thick black line), as indicated by the axis labels. Nighttime LST estimates from previous years are also shown (blue: -1 yr from present; magenta: -2 yr from present; grey: -3 yr from present; red: -4 yr from present; green: -5 yr from present).

Minimum Land Surface Temperature (LST)

This map shows minimum land surface temperature (LST) used as a proxy for monitoring minimum air temperature.

Minimum air temperature is a factor of mosquito development time as well as an indicator of Plasmodium parasite development within the mosquito vectors. A minimum air temperature of 18 °C or greater is necessary for potential Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission while a minimum temperature of 16°C and above is considered necessary for Plasmodium vivax transmission.


Ceccato, P., Vancutsem, C., Temimi, M. (2010). Monitoring Air and Land Surface Temperatures from Remotely Sensed Data for Climate-Human Health Applications. International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) pp. 178-180

DaSilva, J., et. al. (2004) Improving epidemic malaria planning, preparedness and response in Southern Africas. Malaria Journal vol. 3. pp. 37

Dataset Documentation

This map is a mosaic of MODIS images at 1km resolution, averaged over 8 days. Images are a product of the Aqua satellite and are courtesy of the United States Geological Survey.

8 day average minimum Land Surface Temperature

Data: 8 day average MODIS Night Land Surface Temperature image at 1 km spatial resolution from the Aqua satellite.

Data Source: United States Geological Survey, Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (USGS LandDAAC MODIS)

Note: There is typically a 8 to 10 day delay between the end of the observation period for the latest data and the date when those data are received and displayed on this page.


Access the dataset used to create this map.


Contact help@iri.columbia.edu with any technical questions or problems with this Map Room.


The default map on this page shows the most recent 8 day average minimum LST over Africa. As the user moves the cursor over the map, a tool bar will appear on top that will allow for previous 8 day periods (2002-the most recent period) to be displayed.

The interface consists of a clickable map that allows users to generate customized time series graphs. When a desired location is clicked, the most recent 12 month LST time series will be generated.